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What would you do to change the world?

What would I do to help our world? I am going to continue my work with Blu Pela and use this platform to bring awareness to many very important issues that can help resolve problems with our environment. Gary Lindner Director Planet Sanctuary

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  4. To show affection; to act in a loving way.

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Created Light on the World Spotlights

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*Earth

The Economic Benefits of Old-Growth Forests in the Pacific Northwest:

Gary Lindner
Have you ever looked into a forest of standing trees and thought of the economic value of leaving them up as 0pposed to cutting them down. Probably not, but this is a topic that is an on going fight between conservation groups and economic interest groups. Some of the economic interest groups would include logging companies, Oil and gas drillers and any one who financially benefits from disturbing the standing trees and wildlife that depends on that forestry. All over the world the value of leaving the trees standing can and does out weigh cutting them down from defending agaisnst silt run off that will destroy salmon spawning grounds in the Pacific north west too the jungles of the Amazon where undiscovered medicines can benefit all of us. Below is an intense study quantifying the value of standing trees specifically national forest in Northern California,Oregon and Washington where logging was king. The future is Bright for the trees!
Prepared for
Earthjustice
203 Hoge Building 705 Second Avenue Seattle, WA 98104-1711
by
ECONorthwest
99 W. Tenth, Suite 400 Eugene, OR 97401 (541) 687-0051
October 2006
© ECONorthwest 2006

For many observers, May 29, 1991, marks a turning point in the management of forests in Washington, Oregon, and northern California. On that date in Seattle, Federal District Judge William Dwyer ended almost all logging on 17 national forests in these three states until the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and other federal resource-management agencies could demonstrate that they had cured logging-related violations of the nation’s environmental laws. In particular, Judge Dwyer issued an injunction forbidding the Forest Service from selling more timber in habitat suitable for the northern spotted owl, a species threatened with extinction, until it could provide assurance that it could sell timber without significantly undercutting the species’ continued survival.
The injunction stimulated a process that, in 1994, produced the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) covering 24.5 million acres of federal lands in western Washington, Oregon, and northern California. Much of the NWFP focuses on providing adequate habitat for northern spotted owls, marbled murrelets, salmon, and other species having a close association with the old-growth forests of this region. Within the confines of the NWFP, the term old-growth forest has a specific definition:
A forest stand usually at least 180-220 years old with moderate to high canopy closure; a multilayered, multispecies canopy dominated by large overstory trees; high incidence of large trees, some with broken tops and other indications of old and decaying wood (decadence); numerous large snags; and heavy accumulations of wood, including large logs on the ground.
A common criticism of the NWFP is that its restrictions on logging old-growth forests are bad for the economy. According to this view, forests benefit the economy primarily when they are converted into commodities and, hence, restrictions on logging of old-growth forests deprive American consumers of the lumber, paper, and other commodities that could be produced if old-growth trees were converted into logs.
This view, however, overlooks the economic benefits that residents of the region and other Americans derive from old-growth forests, i.e., from trees left standing rather than cut down. To understand these benefits it is useful to recognize that forests are economically important not just when they produce commodities but also when they provide services, such as providing habitat for at-risk species or producing and regulating the flow of clean water. Over the past several decades, economists and ecological scientists have examined the processes, called ecosystem functions, by which old-growth forests and other ecosystems
Determining the value of the services derived from old-growth forests is generally far more difficult than measuring the value of the commodity goods, such as logs and lumber, derived from these forests. Most forest-related services are not easily traded in markets and do not have monetized prices attached to them. This difference does not, however, mean that the services are necessarily less valuable. Instead, it means economists must use a variety of techniques to determine the value of the services. In the remainder of this report we provide an overview of the findings of research regarding several categories of services provided by old-growth forests of the NWFP. We look separately at research findings that substantiate these conclusions:
A. OldGrowthForestsSupportmanyTerrestrialandAquaticSpecies
B. Old-GrowthForestsandtheHabitatTheyProvideHaveEconomicValue
C. OldGrowthForestsIncreaseWaterSuppliesandProvideValuableWater- Regulation Services
D. Old-Growth Forests Provide Valuable Recreational Opportunities
E. Old-GrowthForestsCanStrengthenLocalEconomies
F. Old-Growth Forests Protect Valuable Assets
For more information regarding the contents of this report, please contact:
Ernie Niemi, ECONorthwest
99 West 10th Avenue, Suite 400, Eugene, Oregon 97401 phone: 541-687-0051 email: niemi@eugene.econw.com
Many species depend on the old-growth forests of western Washington, Oregon, and northern California to survive. Scientists have looked separately at this relationship for terrestrial species and for those that either live in or depend heavily on streams in old- growth forests.
Habitat for Terrestrial Species
More than 1,000 terrestrial species are closely associated with old-growth forests on federal lands in western Washington, Oregon, and northern California, as shown in Table 2:3
Table 2. Terrestrial Species Closely Associated with Old-Growth Forests, by Species Group

Fungi
527
Bryophytes
106
Lichens
157
Vascular Plants
124
Mollusks
102
Amphibians
18
Birds
38
Mammals
26
Total species
1,098
Habitat for Water-Related Species
Within the range of the northern spotted owl in Washington, Oregon, and California, more than 100 stocks of salmon, steelhead, and other anadromous salmonid fish are already extinct, and an estimated 314 stocks are at risk of extinction. Of these, 259
stocks depend on federal lands. Anadromous salmonids in these states are especially dependent on having high-quality freshwater in streams because the area has limited amounts of high-quality estuarine and near-shore habitat.
Table 3 shows the number of non-fish species associated with old-growth/late- successional forests that utilize streams, wetlands, and riparian areas. The indicated vascular plants, lichens, mosses, and mollusks are exclusively associated with these areas; the vertebrate species use riparian areas for foraging, roosting, and travel if old- growth conditions are present.
Improved Water Quality in Streams and Clean Water for Municipal-Industrial Use
Algal biomass in headwater streams in old-growth forests are 7 – 14 percent of the algal biomass in headwater streams in logged areas.21
Many cities and industries in the region obtain water from rivers whose waters are sufficiently clean that they require minimal treatment before being distributed to consumers. The watersheds of these rivers typically are forested and exhibit little disturbance. A study of the North Santiam River, which proves water for the City of Salem, Oregon, found the savings for consumers were $18 – 34 per capita per year, and the water supply naturally meets the high quality standards of silicon-chip manufacturing.22
Controlled Runoff and Reduced Flood Risk
Studies near Puget Sound show that, in natural forests, less than one percent of rainfall becomes surface runoff. In contrast, in urban areas 84 percent of the rainfall becomes surface runoff.23
Old-growth forests diminish the peak flows of streams following storms by 33 – 50 percent, relative to logged forests.
E. OLD-GROWTH FORESTS CAN STRENGTHEN LOCAL ECONOMIES
When logging of old-growth forests on federal lands was restricted in the early 1990s, many feared the economy of the entire region would collapse, with tens of thousands of workers becoming permanently unemployed. The predictions were wrong. Although some workers and communities saw their immediate economic prospects diminish, the regional economy, as a whole experienced robust economic growth. Evidence indicates that the robust growth occurred not despite the logging curtailment but because of it.
Federal Lands, Including Old-Growth Forests, that Are Managed to Provide Services Rather than Commodities Boost the Economies of Local Communities
Many studies document the positive impacts that federal lands managed for their natural amenities, rather than for timber and other commodities, have on local economies.
• A study of roadless areas on federal lands in Washington concluded that, rather than causing impoverishment of nearby communities, “roadless area protection strengthens their current and future economic base and the sectors of the economy that will be the source of additional jobs and income.
• A study of 250 rural counties in western states found that those counties adjacent to a national park experienced more rapid population growth than other counties, and the designation of wilderness had no negative impact on employment or income. A related examination of all 333 non-metropolitan counties in eleven western states found that the listing of species as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act had no statistically significant, negative effect on growth in employment between 1980 and 1990. Another study found that, between 1969 and 2000, rural counties adjacent to wilderness areas experienced faster growth in population, jobs, and income than those more distant from wilderness.
• Natural-resource amenities, such as those provided by forested federal lands protected against logging, can stimulate growth in population, employment, and income in nearby communities.
• The influence that natural-resource amenities exert on economic development in local communities appears to be increasing.
• Although the presence of protected federal lands is correlated with growth in employment, data from Oregon’s counties shows that logging levels are not correlated with changes in employment in those counties.
• In a retrospective look at how the economy responded to the protection of old- growth forests that provide habitat for northern spotted owl, marbled murrelets, and other species, economists with the Forest Service concluded that the predictions of economic catastrophe failed to materialize.
Old-growth forests in this region conserve valuable assets, such as soil and the genetic legacy of species that, absent the habitat provided by old-growth forests, would face a greater risk of extinction. By reducing sediment in streams and the risk of flooding, old- growth forests also maintain the value of public infrastructure, such as roads, and private property. Old-growth forests also contain large amounts of carbon, both above and below the surface of the ground.
Protect Productive Soils and Infrastructure
Building roads and logging trees in old-growth forests can increase the amount of soil lost through erosion and sedimentation of streams. A summary of research concluded: “Sediment yields from logging and roads are widely documented ... and studies generally show a 2- to 50-fold increase over background levels, with most of the increase associated with roads.” Sedimentation remains higher than background rates more than 5 years after logging.
A 1988 study of the Siuslaw National Forest found that logging on 87,000 acres would increase sediment in streams, which would increase by $770,000 the costs local government would incur during the period to remove the sediment from municipal water supplies and roadside drainage ditches.
Protect Habitat for Valuable Species
The 1988 study of the Siuslaw National Forest also found that the logging would reduce the populations of adult fish in the area by 84,000 salmon and 24,000 steelhead over a thirty-year period. The estimated commercial and recreational value of these fish losses was $1.8 million dollars.
Even logging of forests that contain large trees, but do not yet have all the characteristics of old-growth forests, can destroy valuable habitat and reduce the populations of salmon and steelhead. Managing such a watershed tributary to Tillamook Bay to produce annual salmon populations at historical levels would generate annual benefits of $26.2 million – $52.4 million. The value of the salmon produced in coastal watersheds not damaged by logging may be as high as $4,500 per stream mile per year.
A recent study summarized and augmented research on the economic benefits of restoring salmon populations or, alternatively, of avoiding further declines in salmon populations. It reported that, for incremental changes in population, the value per fish is approximately $872 for Washington Coastal Chum Salmon, Oregon Coastal Coho Salmon, Rogue River Coastal Coho Salmon, and Puget Sound Chinook Salmon.39
One survey of the relevant literature compared the economic benefits U.S. households derive from different rare, threatened, and endangered species.40 It found the annual economic benefits of protecting Pacific salmon/steelhead are $31 – $88 per U.S. household. These numbers, when applied to the approximately 100 million households, indicates the total annual benefits are $3.1 – $8.8 billion. The researchers concluded the economic benefits of actions taken under the Endangered Species Act to conserve the species outweigh the costs.

Votes2 DateMar 8, 2015

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*Wildlife

Riana Van Nieuwenhuizen

Gary Lindner
There are many careers hobbies and endeavours that are dangerous. As far as the many dedicated people who make the choice to give there life for the benefit of a species of animal can and do put themselves in a dangerous situation, however the few who do it with a complete understanding of that species can greatly limit the risk. That is what I want to focus on. No matter how you feel about wild animals in captivity, in certain environments it is necessary to bring awareness for that species.
For the cheetahs of Africa Riana Van Nieuwenhuizen is that voice and risk taker. Riana has all the tools needed to be that voice for the cats of Africa who really knows if she chose them our they chose her. Another point of view and two videos about Riana
below.
South Africa’s Riana Van Nieuwenhuizen, 46, shares her home with five lions, four cheetahs, and two tigers. In the past, I’ve dispensed advice on eco-friendly cat-keeping but my knowledge of litter boxes and scratching posts are useless here. She really gives the title “crazy cat lady” new meaning.
Nieuwenhuizen actually runs a nonprofit that helps ensure the survival of the big cats, all orphaned, so she’s not completely insane. But here’s the thing: she lets them in her home … they prowl around her kitchen, sleep in her bed, take catnaps with her dogs. The animals are provided with ample outdoor space, of course, but they also have the luxury of being treated like a domesticated household pet. As you'll see in the pictures and video clip, it's all too weird ... think National Geographic meets Sunset magazine.
Personally, I’m a traditional pet kind of guy. Dogs, cats, certain birds, reptiles in well-secured cages, rodents, are all acceptable animals to share a home with. Lions and cheetas? Absolutely not.
What instantly comes to my mind is the horrific case of Travis the chimp, a 14 year-old primate that lived in Stamford, Connecticut, with his owner, Sandra Herold. Travis had full-run of Herold’s home; he bathed and dressed himself, ate at the dining room table, and used a computer. One day last February, Travis was on edge so Herold slipped him a Xanax. Later in the evening, Travis mauled and ate the hands off of a female friend visiting Herold’s home. The police arrived and Travis was killed.
The cases of Jackson, Nieuwenhuizen, and Herold are all extreme, yes, but what are your thoughts on keeping non-domesticated animals, endangered or not, in one’s home? Have you or do you currently provide shelter to critters normally found in the wild (and zoos)? Do you know anyone that does? If so, does going over for a game of poker or afternoon tea put you on edge? Or are you chill with a lion sprawled out on a chaise in the living room?
Source:
http://www.mnn.com/family/pets/blogs/the-queen-of-crazy-cat-ladies
Retrieved 2/16/15
Read more: http://www.mnn.com/family/pets/blogs/the-queen-of-crazy-cat-ladies#ixzz3RwMnLa00

Votes3 DateFeb 16, 2015


Created Planet Sanctuary Spotlights

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Oceans

Massive US Senate Document On National And Global Weather Modification

Gary Lindner
Dane Wigington
geoengeneeringwatch.org
Posted by Gary Lindner
Director Planet Sanctuary
How big does the climate engineering elephant in the room need to be before it can no longer be hidden in plain site? How much more historical proof do we need of the ongoing climate engineering/weather warfare before the denial of the masses crumbles? When will populations around the globe bring to justice all those responsible for the ongoing and rapidly worsening worldwide weather warfare assault? At the bottom of this post is a PDF file containing the entire congressional report from 1978 that we have recently located. This report is just under 750 pages in length (20 key excerpts are posted below to give a general overview). It is a mountain of information that further confirms the ongoing extensive involvement of our government in climate modification/weather warfare. This document also confirms the involvement of foreign governments around the globe, even governments that would otherwise have been considered "hostile to US interests". Within this text a great many aspects and consequences of the ongoing national and global weather modification programs are discussed. Legal implications (including the need for total immunity from any form of prosecution), biological implications, societal implications, environmental implications, etc. Named in the document are federal agencies involved as well as major universities. Again, because the entire document is a long and arduous read, some excerpts are posted below to give insight into the documents contents. The mountain of data to confirm the ongoing climate engineering insanity continues to grow. One additional example of documents already located is an ICAS report to the executive office of the president on climate engineering from 1966, it can be found HERE. The attached extensive congressional document is a revealing and detailed addition to the data that has already been compiled. My most sincere gratitude to Steve Grimwood for locating this very important document.
Click on this to see the report!!!!!!
http://www.geoengineeringwatch.org/massive-us-senate-document-on-national-and-global-weather-modification/

Votes2 DateOct 16, 2015

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Natural wonders

Cold Blob

Gary Lindner
North Atlantic cold "BLOB"
Weather Channal
When NOAA released its report on the first seven months of 2015, the map of the globe was almost completely covered in red to signify that most of the planet was experiencing above-average temperatures for the year.
But there was one big chunk of the North Atlantic Ocean that was a deep, dark blue. Some saw the below-average temperatures of that region as the lone silver lining on the entire map while others questioned why that area was having its coldest year on record.
Some experts theorize that the cold water south of Iceland shows the Atlantic Ocean's circulation is slowing, according to a study published in the journal Nature Climate Change. In short, warm and cold water should work together to balance out the temperature of the oceans, Inhabitat said. Cold, salty water should be pushed down below the surface, and warm water should rise up to replace it. Likewise, the warm salt water should move north with the current, and cold water should go south.
But the massive ice melt occurring in the Arctic has introduced a lot of cold, fresh water into the mix, and it's not behaving the same as cold salt water. It's preventing the sinking that usually happens with cold water, as fresh water is less dense than salt water, and that could be weakening the circulation.
"The fact that a record-hot planet Earth coincides with a record-cold northern Atlantic is quite stunning," Stefan Rahmstorf, one of the authors of the study published in Nature Climate Change, told the Washington Post. "There is strong evidence — not just from our study — that this is a consequence of the long-term decline of the Gulf Stream System, i.e. the Atlantic ocean’s overturning circulation AMOC (Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation), in response to global warming."
Rahmstorf also told the Washington Post he doesn't expect the blob to remain at record cold levels indefinitely, though the circulation should continue to decline. Everything is connected, and climate scientists believe that connection will drive temperatures, and sea levels, higher and higher.

Votes2 DateOct 16, 2015

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Habitats

global warming

Gary Lindner
What Exxon knew about
the Earth's melting Arctic
By SARA JERVING, KATIE JENNINGS, MASAKO MELISSA HIRSCH AND SUSANNE RUST
OCT. 9, 2015
This story is so well written that its needs no introduction The risk of climate change is real and warrants action!!!!
Back in 1990, as the debate over climate change was heating up, a dissident shareholder petitioned the board of Exxon, one of the world’s largest oil companies, imploring it to develop a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from its production plants and facilities.
The board’s response: Exxon had studied the science of global warming and concluded it was too murky to warrant action. The company’s “examination of the issue supports the conclusions that the facts today and the projection of future effects are very unclear.”
Yet in the far northern regions of Canada’s Arctic frontier, researchers and engineers at Exxon and Imperial Oil were quietly incorporating climate change projections into the company’s planning and closely studying how to adapt the company’s Arctic operations to a warming planet.
Ken Croasdale, senior ice researcher for Exxon’s Canadian subsidiary, was leading a Calgary-based team of researchers and engineers that was trying to determine how global warming could affect Exxon’s Arctic operations and its bottom line.
“Certainly any major development with a life span of say 30-40 years will need to assess the impacts of potential global warming,” Croasdale told an engineering conference in 1991. “This is particularly true of Arctic and offshore projects in Canada, where warming will clearly affect sea ice, icebergs, permafrost and sea levels.”
Between 1986 and 1992, Croasdale’s team looked at both the positive and negative effects that a warming Arctic would have on oil operations, reporting its findings to Exxon headquarters in Houston and New Jersey.
The good news for Exxon, he told an audience of academics and government researchers in 1992, was that “potential global warming can only help lower exploration and development costs” in the Beaufort Sea.
But, he added, it also posed hazards, including higher sea levels and bigger waves, which could damage the company’s existing and future coastal and offshore infrastructure, including drilling platforms, artificial islands, processing plants and pump stations. And a thawing earth could be troublesome for those facilities as well as pipelines.
As Croasdale’s team was closely studying the impact of climate change on the company’s operations, Exxon and its worldwide affiliates were crafting a public policy position that sought to downplay the certainty of global warming.
The gulf between Exxon’s internal and external approach to climate change from the 1980s through the early 2000s was evident in a review of hundreds of internal documents, decades of peer-reviewed published material and dozens of interviews conducted by Columbia University’s Energy & Environmental Reporting Project and the Los Angeles Times.
Documents were obtained from the Imperial Oil collection at Calgary’s Glenbow Museum and the Exxon Mobil Historical Collection at the University of Texas at Austin’s Briscoe Center for American History.
“We considered climate change in a number of operational and planning issues,” said Brian Flannery, who was Exxon’s in-house climate science advisor from 1980 to 2011. In a recent interview, he described the company’s internal effort to study the effects of global warming as a competitive necessity: “If you don’t do it, and your competitors do, you’re at a loss.”
::
The Arctic holds about one-third of the world’s untapped natural gas and roughly 13% of the planet’s undiscovered oil, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. More than three-quarters of Arctic deposits are offshore.
Imperial Oil, about 70% of which is owned by Exxon Mobil, began drilling in the frigid Arctic waters of the Canadian Beaufort Sea in the early 1970s. By the early 1990s, it had drilled two dozen exploratory wells.
The exploration was expensive, due to bitter temperatures, wicked winds and thick sea ice. And when a worldwide oil slump drove petroleum prices down in the late 1980s, the company began scaling back those efforts.
But with mounting evidence the planet was warming, company scientists, including Croasdale, wondered whether climate change might alter the economic equation. Could it make Arctic oil exploration and production easier and cheaper?
“The issue of CO2 emissions was certainly well-known at that time in the late 1980s,” Croasdale said in an interview.
Since the late 1970s and into the 1980s, Exxon had been at the forefront of climate change research, funding its own internal science as well as research from outside experts at Columbia University and MIT.
With company support, Croasdale spearheaded the company’s efforts to understand climate change’s effects on its operations. A company such as Exxon, he said, “should be a little bit ahead of the game trying to figure out what it was all about.”
Exxon Mobil describes its efforts in those years as standard operating procedure. “Our researchers considered a wide range of potential scenarios, of which potential climate change impacts such as rising sea levels was just one,” said Alan Jeffers, a spokesman for Exxon Mobil.
The Arctic seemed an obvious region to study, Croasdale and other experts said, because it was likely to be most affected by global warming.
That reasoning was backed by models built by Exxon scientists, including Flannery, as well as Marty Hoffert, a New York University physicist. Their work, published in 1984, showed that global warming would be most pronounced near the poles.
Between 1986, when Croasdale took the reins of Imperial’s frontier research team, until 1992, when he left the company, his team of engineers and scientists used the global circulation models developed by the Canadian Climate Centre and NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies to anticipate how climate change could affect a variety of operations in the Arctic.
These were the same models that — for the next two decades — Exxon’s executives publicly dismissed as unreliable and based on uncertain science. As Chief Executive Lee Raymond explained at an annual meeting in 1999, future climate “projections are based on completely unproven climate models, or, more often, on sheer speculation.”
One of the first areas the company looked at was how the Beaufort Sea could respond to a doubling of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which the models predicted would happen by 2050.
Greenhouse gases are rising “due to the burning of fossil fuels,” Croasdale told an audience of engineers at a conference in 1991. “Nobody disputes this fact,” he said, nor did anyone doubt those levels would double by the middle of the 21st century.
Using the models and data from a climate change report issued by Environment Canada, Canada’s environmental agency, the team concluded that the Beaufort Sea’s open water season — when drilling and exploration occurred — would lengthen from two months to three and possibly five months.
They were spot on.
In the years following Croasdale’s conclusions, the Beaufort Sea has experienced some of the largest losses in sea ice in the Arctic and its open water season has increased significantly, according to Mark Serreze, a senior researcher at the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo.
For instance, in Alaska’s Chukchi Sea, west of the Beaufort, the season has been extended by 79 days since 1979, Serreze said.
An extended open water season, Croasdale said in 1992, could potentially reduce exploratory drilling and construction costs by 30% to 50%.
He did not recommend making investment decisions based on those scenarios, because he believed the science was still uncertain. However, he advised the company to consider and incorporate potential “negative outcomes,” including a rise in the sea level, which could threaten onshore infrastructure; bigger waves, which could damage offshore drilling structures; and thawing permafrost, which could make the earth buckle and slide under buildings and pipelines.
::
The most pressing concerns for the company centered on a 540-mile pipeline that crossed the Northwest Territories into Alberta, its riverside processing facilities in the remote town of Norman Wells, and a proposed natural gas facility and pipeline in the Mackenzie River Delta, on the shores of the Beaufort Sea.
The company hired Stephen Lonergan, a Canadian geographer from McMaster University, to study the effect of climate change there.
Lonergan used several climate models in his analysis, including the NASA model. They all concluded that things would get warmer and wetter and that those effects “cannot be ignored,” he said in his report.
As a result, the company should expect “maintenance and repair costs to roads, pipelines and other engineering structures” to be sizable in the future, he wrote.
A warmer Arctic would threaten the stability of permafrost, he noted, potentially damaging the buildings, processing plants and pipelines that were built on the solid, frozen ground.
In addition, the company should expect more flooding along its riverside facilities, an earlier spring breakup of the ice pack, and more-severe summer storms.
But it was the increased variability and unpredictability of the weather that was going to be the company’s biggest challenge, he said.
Record-breaking droughts, floods and extreme heat — the worst-case scenarios — were now events that not only were likely to happen, but could occur at any time, making planning for such scenarios difficult, Lonergan warned the company in his report. Extreme temperatures and precipitation “should be of greatest concern,” he wrote, “both in terms of future design and … expected impacts.”
The fact that temperatures could rise above freezing on almost any day of the year got his superiors’ attention. That “was probably one of the biggest results of the study and that shocked a lot of people,” he said in a recent interview.
Lonergan recalled that his report came as somewhat of a disappointment to Imperial’s management, which wanted specific advice on what action it should take to protect its operations. After presenting his findings, he remembered, one engineer said: “Look, all I want to know is: Tell me what impact this is going to have on permafrost in Norman Wells and our pipelines.”
As it happened, J.F. “Derick” Nixon, a geotechnical engineer on Croasdale’s team, was studying that question.
He looked at historical temperature data and concluded Norman Wells could grow about 0.2 degrees warmer every year. How would that, he wondered, affect the frozen ground underneath buildings and pipelines?
“Although future structures may incorporate some consideration of climatic warming in their design,” he wrote in a technical paper delivered at a conference in Canada in 1991, “northern structures completed in the recent past do not have any allowance for climatic warming.” The result, he said, could be significant settling.
Nixon said the work was done in his spare time and not commissioned by the company. However, Imperial “was certainly aware of my work and the potential effects on their buildings.”
::
Exxon Mobil declined to respond to requests for comment on what steps it took as a result of its scientists’ warnings. According to Flannery, the company’s in-house climate expert, much of the work of shoring up support for the infrastructure was done as routine maintenance.
“You build it into your ongoing system and it becomes a part of what you do,” he said.
Today, as Exxon’s scientists predicted 25 years ago, Canada’s Northwest Territories has experienced some of the most dramatic effects of global warming. While the rest of the planet has seen an average increase of roughly 1.5 degrees in the last 100 years, the northern reaches of the province have warmed by 5.4 degrees and temperatures in central regions have increased by 3.6 degrees.
Since 2012, Exxon Mobil and Imperial have held the rights to more than 1 million acres in the Beaufort Sea, for which they bid $1.7 billion in a joint venture with BP. Although the companies have not begun drilling, they requested a lease extension until 2028 from the Canadian government a few months ago. Exxon Mobil declined to comment on its plans there.
Croasdale, who still consults for Exxon, said the company could be “taking a gamble” the ice will break up soon, finally bringing about the day he predicted so long ago — when the costs would become low enough to make Arctic exploration economical.
Amy Lieberman and Elah Feder contributed to this report.
About this story: Over the last year, the Energy and Environmental Reporting Project at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Journalism, with the Los Angeles Times, has been researching the gap between Exxon Mobil’s public position and its internal planning on the issue of climate change. As part of that effort, reporters reviewed hundreds of documents housed in archives in Calgary’s Glenbow Museum and at the University of Texas. They also reviewed scientific journals and interviewed dozens of experts, including former Exxon Mobil employees. This is the first in a series of occasional articles.
Additional credits: Digital producer: Evan Wagstaff. Lead photo caption: Ice in the Chukchi Sea breaks up in open water season, making oil exploration cheaper and easier.
::

Votes2 DateOct 10, 2015

[image for Planet Spotlight big foot image.jpg]
Natural wonders

Big Foot?

Gary Lindner
EVALUATION OF ALLEGED SASQUATCH FOOTPRINTS
AND THEIR INFERRED FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY
D. JEFFREY MELDRUM, Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University Here is a the most famous footage that to this day can not be proven to be a fake. I also want you to watch a video of MK davis with the truth behind the patterson film very interesting. Please post any interesting stories or information you might have on the subject.
Patterson Gimlin Bigfoot film 1967, the best stabilization of all 5 parts of the film.
MK Davis break down of the Patterson film. Shows that it is a female big foot.
Introduction
Throughout the twentieth century, thousands of eyewitness reports of giant bipedal apes, commonly referred to as Bigfoot or Sasquatch, have emanated from the montane forests of the western United States and Canada. Hundreds of large humanoid footprints have been discovered and many have been photographed or preserved as plaster casts. As incredulous as these reports may seem, the simple fact of the matter remains -- the footprints exist and warrant evaluation. A sample of over 100 footprint casts and over 50 photographs of footprints and casts was assembled and examined, as well as several examples of fresh footprints.
Tracks in the Blue Mountains
The author examined fresh footprints first-hand in 1996, near the Umatilla National Forest, outside Walla Walla, Washington. The isolated trackway comprised in excess of 40 discernible footprints on a muddy farm road, across a plowed field, and along an irrigation ditch. The footprints measured approximately 35 cm (13.75 in) long and 13 cm (5.25 in) wide. Step length ranged from 1.0 - 1.3 m. Limited examples of faint dermatoglyphics were apparent, but deteriorated rapidly under the wet weather conditions. Individual footprints exhibited variations in toe position that were consistent with inferred walking speed and accommodation of irregularities in the substrate. A flat foot was indicated with an elongated heel segment. Seven individual footprints were preserved as casts.
Evidence of a Midtarsal Break
Perhaps the most significant observation relating to this trackway was the evidence of a pronounced flexibility in the midtarsal joint. Several examples of midfoot pressure ridges indicate a greater range of flexion at the transverse tarsal joint than permitted in the normal human tarsus. This is especially manifest in the footprint figured below, in which a heel impression is absent. Evidently, the hindfoot was elevated at the time of contact by the midfoot. Due to the muddy conditions, the foot slipped backward, as indicated by the toe slide-ins, and a ridge of mud was pushed up behind the midtarsal region.

Patterson-Gimlin Film Subject
In October 1967, Roger Patterson and Bob Gimlin claimed to have captured on film a female Bigfoot retreating across a loamy sandbar on Bluff Creek, in northern California. The film provides a view of the plantar surface of the subject's foot, as well as several unobstructed views of step cycles. In addition to a prominent elongated heel, a midtarsal break is apparent during midstance and considerable flexion of the midtarsus can be seen during the swing phase. The subject left a long series of deeply impressed footprints. Patterson cast single examples of a right and a left footprint. The next day the site was visited by Robert Laverty, a timber management assistant and his sales crew. He took several photographs including one of a footprint exhibiting a pronounced pressure ridge in the midtarsal region. This same footprint, along with nine others in a series, was cast two weeks later by Bob Titmus, a Canadian taxidermist. A model of inferred skeletal anatomy is proposed here to account for the distinctive midtarsal pressure ridge and "half-tracks" in which the heel impression is absent. In this model the Sasquatch foot lacks a fixed longitudinal arch, but instead exhibits a high degree of midfoot flexibility at the transverse tarsal joint. Following the midtarsal break, a plastic substrate may be pushed up in a pressure ridge as propulsive force is exerted through the midfoot. An increased power arm in the foot lever system is achieved by heel elongation as opposed to arch fixation.
Conclusions
Human walking is characterized by an extended stiff-legged striding gait with distinct heel-strike and toe-off phases. Bending stresses in the digits are held low by selection for relatively short toes that participate in propulsion at the sacrifice of prehension. Efficiency and economy of muscle action during distance walking and running are maximized by reduced mobility in the tarsal joints, a fixed longitudinal arch, elastic storage in the well developed calcaneal tendon, plantar aponeurosis and deep plantar ligaments of the foot.
In contrast, the Sasquatch appear to have adapted to bipedal locomotion by employing a compliant gait on a flat flexible foot. A degree of prehensile capability has been retained in the digits by maintaining the uncoupling of the propulsive function of the hindoot from the forefoot via the midtarsal break. Digits are spared the peak forces of toe-off due to the compliant gait with its extended period of double support. This would be a efficient strategy for negotiating the steep, broken terrain of the dense montane forests of the Pacific and Intermountain West, especially for a bipedal hominoid of considerable body mass, The dynamic signatures of this adaptive pattern of gait are generally evident in the footprints examined in this study.

Votes4 DateSep 1, 2015

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Habitats

15000 species are found on our planet every year

Gary Lindner
How many species are left to be discovered on this planet? The estimates of discovered species on a yearly basis is up to 15000. Most species that make this list are very small however still unidentified. Estimates from scientists are that the planet holds somewhere between 5million and 10 million species and we only discovered around 1.5 million another concrete reason to protect habitat. Here are some examples of recently discovered animals and plants. The cover picture is a tasmanian tiger here is a video about this animal.
Zoologists at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. actually spent years being frustrated about their resident olinguitos’ inability to mate. But the olinguito is a small carnivore in the raccoon family, commonly confused with its identical-looking cousin the olingo. They were trying to mate the olinguito with an olingo, not realizing that it was an entirely different species.
An Olinguito (above) not to be confused with an Olingo (below) (Photo: Mark Gurney/WikiCommons CC BY 3.0)
(Photo: Jeremy Gatten/WikiCommons CC BY-SA 2.0)
That doesn’t mean the well-explored parts of the world have no surprises left for us: just last year, a new species of frog was discovered in New York City, of all places. However, if you want to discover a new animal, less-trodden areas are a better bet. The most rewarding spots tend to be the tropics, since there are a wider variety of plants and animals there than in temperate regions.

There are plenty of places in the tropics that haven’t been thoroughly sifted through, though. “Typically, if you were interested in finding new species, a very good thing to look at would be to understand where people have done research and surveys in the past, and then find the holes, the blank areas of the map that have been under-studied,” says Raxworthy.
The reasons why some places remain unexplored are not what you would expect. Inaccessibility, for example, is not really a problem in the modern age. Sure, there might not be any direct flights from a research institution to Motuo, China (no roads go there) or the desolate Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean (you can only get there with a six-day boat ride from an island off the coast of Madagascar), but that doesn’t bother contemporary researchers much.
The remote Kerguelen Islands are one of the most isolated places on earth, and lie more than 2051miles away from the nearest populated location (Photo: MapData © 2015 Google)
“People who really enjoy fieldwork, they enjoy exploration, so they'd be up for the challenge,” says Raxworthy. And with the relatively cheap cost of international travel (compared to decades past, at least), a geographically remote place wouldn’t discourage researchers intent on finding new species–it might even encourage them.
So if it’s not physical inaccessibility, why are there still blank spots on the map? “I think a lot of it is really driven by politics,” said Raxworthy. The political situation can unnerve researchers far more than a long and uncomfortable boat ride, and national and regional instability can lead to waves of scientists alternately heading to (or avoiding) large swaths of land.
In the next few years, for example, expect to see a whole clutch of new species emerging from Cuba. American or U.S.-based researchers have long been barred due to economic sanctions from entering the country. But with the loosening of travel restrictions, a new crop of scientists are lining up to visit. Raxworthy, a U.S-based Englishman, is hoping to head to Cuba to study the island’s reptiles and amphibians within the year, and he won’t be the only one.
Cuba is an extreme example; more often, areas become possible to explore in stages as they become more stable. “In Colombia, different regions of the country fall under the control of different drug barons,” says Raxworthy. “So one year you can go to this mountain and do work over there, and the next year that's totally off limits and would be really dangerous to go there.” Tropical Africa falls along the same lines. Much of the Eastern Congo is frustrating for scientists, as it’s comparatively unexplored and likely to host a wide variety of new species, but dozens of warring factions make it an exceptionally dangerous destination.
Then there are the parts of the world that, right now, are simply a no-go. “I think for example, if you wanted to do work right now in a place like Somalia, you'd be crazy,” said Raxworthy. Northern Mali, near Timbuktu, is also largely off-limits thanks to the high chance of getting kidnapped. Afghanistan would be another tough one. But stability comes in waves, and at some point, it’ll become more safe for researchers to head out there—and as soon as they can, they will, and we’ll start seeing more new discoveries from those areas.

Votes4 DateSep 1, 2015

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Wildlife

Save the elephant

Gary Lindner
Pink tusks aren't real, but still help combat hunting of elephants for ivory
By Gary Lindner
Director Planet Sanctuary
Some times all you need to do is out think your opponent. In this case of poaching and specifically illegal ivory poachers is to destroy there merchandise without hurting the animal. Who knows how many animals can and will be saved by this practice of discoloring the ivory and ultimately ruining the product. This is far from a solution to the poaching problem in Kruger national park but it can be a deterent. The only long term solution to eradicating poaching is to educate the people of the region so they understand that protecting the wildlife of Africa is more valuable to them then the benefit that a few ivory poachers gain destroying what makes Africa so amazing. Here is an article that goes into more detail on what is involved in combating the poachers. PLEASE WATCH THE VIDEOS. IF SOMETHING IS NOT DONE THIS WILL BE THE END TO THE AFRICAN ELEPHANT AND RHINO! AND SOONER NOT LATER!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
This pink elephant can’t be blamed on a drunken hallucination, though wildlife conservationists might suggest a certain level of intoxication to those who think their pink tusks could be real.
Reports abound online regarding elephant tusks being painted pink in an effort to devalue the ivory for poachers. A Facebook post, Stain Tusks to Stop Elephant Poaching, includes a photo of an elephant with pink tusks, but goes on to explain that the photo has been altered. The author then suggests that even though the photo is a fake, the notion of staining tusks should be explored in an effort to stop the killing of innocent elephants in Africa.
But wildlife conservationists say painting elephant tusks is hardly feasible for animals in the wild.
“The idea is impractical to impossible on a field-level scale because of the sheer logistics and cost to implement,” says Anne Lambert of the International Conservation Fund of Canada, a charity that focuses on global conservation work. “Darting and applying dye to elephants would involve a huge cost and stress and risk to elephants. And even if achievable on a small, enclosed population, poaching pressure would just be diverted elsewhere.”
While painting elephant tusks is highly improbable, Hern applauds people for inventing ways to think about poaching more actively and creatively.
“Poaching syndicates are extremely innovative in how they market their illegal products,” she says. “We need to start employing the same tactics in our attempts to counter their efforts. Even a seemingly impractical idea may just be the spark someone needs to come up with something that does work. The problem is out of control, which means the solution can probably only be found outside the box.”
According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), an international NGO that focuses on conservation and the environment, elephant herds have shrunken by 50 per cent since 1979 due to unmonitored domestic ivory markets that fuel the illegal international trade. It is reported that as many as 35,000 elephants are killed each year in Africa.
The biggest threat facing African rhinos is poaching for the illegal trade in their horns. Used for everything from cures for hangovers to cancer, rhino horn is a common ingredient in traditional Asian medicines. Fueled largely by Vietnamese demand, rhino horn is also considered a symbol of wealth. The number of rhinos poached in South Africa has increased by 9,000 per cent since 2007, from 13 to a record 1,215 in 2014.
The WWF doesn’t endorse horn infusion due to its impracticality, says Dr. Colman O’Criodain, a wildlife trade specialist with WWF.
“The reason we didn’t endorse this method is because simply in order to do that you have to dart and anesthetize the rhino,” he says. “Most of the poaching is happening in Kruger National Park and that’s the size of Wales and it’s just not practical. Not to mention the fact that in a matter of time they would have babies and you’d have to do it again.”
Fighting the illegal trade of ivory and rhino horn involves tactics that include stepping up enforcement on poachers and smugglers as well as educating consumers about the disadvantages of purchasing these products. The WWF is also working toward a fourth pillar that raises the profile of wildlife crime.
“Any other kind of organized crime involving the amounts of money that are at stake in ivory and rhino smuggling would be a national concern for security reasons,” says O’Criodain. “So we’re not asking people necessarily to up the effort simply because we love rhinos and elephants, which we do and because they contribute to biodiversity and to eco-system health, we’re doing this also because we believe it’s a security issue.”

Votes4 DateAug 1, 2015

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Wildlife

fly fishing

Gary Lindner
FISHING THE TRIBUTARIES IN UPSTATE NEW YORK.
PROTECT OUR NATURAL RESOURCES
GARY LINDNER
DIRECTOR PLANET SANCTUARY
ONE WORLD BLUE
Typically when most people think of New York, the first thought they have is of the City. Rarely if ever do people stop to consider what else lies outside the deep walls of the office towers. In my opinion the opportunity to enjoy the fantastic tributaries like Oak Orchard in up state New York is priceless. These waterways represent how important it is to protect the water quality in the Great lakes and the streams that feed into them. Here are some pictures a fishing trip my friend Tony and I enjoyed last fall. These salmon and trout rely on these streams and the health of the streams to continue the cycle of life that the king salmon and large species of trout need to continue that cycle.
All the fish in these pictures were caught and released. These fish are stocked by the state of New York and are a very important part of the economy of the small towns that surround these tribs. If the steams or Great lakes are compromised in any way there would be a major economic affect on those economies. If you have never visited the amazing beauty of northern New York plan a trip, you will not be disappointed. Some of these streams often lie within a series of glacial gorges and require rigorous hiking in order to locate the fishing opportunities. These upstream gorges support very tiny, delicate fisheries which do not tolerate large amounts of fishing pressure or any pollutants. While the fish caught in these gorges may only be 8-9", catching trout below a spectacular waterfall and hiking to dramatic vistas with 200 foot drops more than makes up for any lack of size. The experience of wonderful surroundings, hiking and fly fishing provides a combined recreational opportunity unparalleled in the Northeast.

Votes2 DateJul 15, 2015

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Oceans

Neon sharks

Gary Lindner
We all know how beautiful marine life can be; corals lush with purple, fish splashed with orange as bright as fire and blue as deep as a sapphire. The ocean is full of life that is guaranteed to tickle anyone's visual senses. Now researchers have found that marine esthetics doesn't end with what we can see; there is much, much more than meets the eye. They have discovered more than 180 species which will astound you with their previously unknown beauty. The beauty of biofluorescence.
You may have heard of bioluminescence before, but biofluorescence is different. Bioluminescence involves a reaction whereby chemical energy is converted into light energy, which produces and emits light. Biofluorescence, however, involves no such reactions. Instead, a high energy wavelength of light, such as blue light, is absorbed. Upon absorption, it loses some of its energy and is then emitted at a different, lower wavelength, such as green. And this is happening in a remarkable number of species, ranging from seahorses to sharks; take a look in the publication for some amazing snaps.
In order for the scientists to visualize and record these neon secrets, they used a blue light that recreates the almost monochromatic light that the animals live in in the ocean. This is because with depth, the red, green, orange and yellow components of sunlight are removed, leaving only blue light. Then, in order to see the light that is being reflected from these animals, they used different color filters on the camera lens. Check out what they found in this amazing video:

Votes2 DateJun 25, 2015

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Oceans

Florida keys

Gary Lindner
Southeast Florida’s reefs support a rich and diverse assemblage of stony corals, octocorals, macroalgae, sponges, and fishes. They span from the northern border of Biscayne National Park in Miami-Dade County to the St. Lucie Inlet in Martin County. The Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) coordinates research and monitoring, develops management strategies, and promotes partnerships to protect the coral reefs, hardbottom communities, and associated reef resources of southeast Florida.
Through its role in supporting Florida's membership on the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, and the U.S. All Islands Committee, the CRCP leads the implementation of the Southeast Florida Coral Reef Initiative and contributes to the National Action Plan to conserve coral reefs. The CRCP is also charged with coordinating response to vessel groundings and anchor damage incidents in southeast Florida, and developing strategies to prevent coral reef injuries.
Why are living corals valuable?
Coral reefs are valuable natural resources. They protect our coasts by reducing wave energy from storms and hurricanes. They serve as a source of food and shelter and provide critical habitat for numerous species, including commercially important fisheries. Many medicines as well as other health and beauty products are derived from marine plants, algae and animals found on coral reefs.
Coral reefs are a marvelous resource for recreation, education, scientific research, and public inspiration. Millions of tourists and local residents enjoy scuba diving, snorkeling, and fishing on Florida's coral reefs. These activities provide a tremendous source of income for Florida and its coastal communities. It is estimated that natural reefs in Martin, Palm Beach, Broward and Miami-Dade counties generate $3.4 billion in sales and income and support 36,000 jobs in the region each year (Johns, Milon & Sayers, 2004; Johns, Leeworthy, Bell & Bonn, 2001).
Johns, G. M., Leeworthy, V. R., Bell, F.W. & Bonn, M. A. (2001) Socioeconomic Study of Reefs in Southeast Florida. Final Report. Hazen and Sawyer Environmental Engineers & Scientists
Johns, G. M., Milon, J. W. & Sayers D. (2004) Socioeconomic Study of Reefs in Martin County, FL. Final Report. Hazen and Sawyer Environmental Engineers & Scientists

Votes3 DateJun 25, 2015

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Wildlife

BIG cats

Gary Lindner
Tigers at an exotic cat refuge in Texas have been stricken with canine distemper virus (CDV), a contagious and often deadly disease for which there is no cure in felines. This infection has been attacking all large cats all over the world from puma in the western USA to the bengal tigers in Russia.
In-Sync Exotics Wildlife Rescue and Education Center in Wylie, Texas, has reported a number of their big cats dying from CDV and more than a dozen big cats at the refuge have contracted it.
Reports of tigers and lions contracting CDV have been trickling in for a number of years. It has been know for at least 30 years that CDV can affect big cats. About 1,000 lions were killed by CDV in Tanzania's Serengeti National Park in 1994, the AP reported.
A recent study of Amur (also known as Siberian) tigers suggested that at least one percent of the Amur population has been killed by the virus since 2009.
Tigers and lions infected with CDV appear sluggish and disoriented. CDV targets the respiratory and digestive systems of animals, but the deadliest aspect of the disease targets the central nervous system -- causing the animals to be come disoriented and to not exhibit fear in situations where they normally would. One online video shows an infected tiger wandering openly along a crowded road in Russia.
In-Sync Exotics Wildlife Rescue and Education Center reports that felines in the Panthera genus, which includes lions, tigers, jaguars and leopards, can become infected by CDV, but other big cats such as cheetahs, bobcats, lynx and servals cannot. The virus can be contracted by ferrets, racoons and, of course, dogs as well.
"We believe that wild raccoons brought the virus onto our property. Animal control has been trapping and testing many raccoons in North Texas, and the majority of them are testing positive for CDV," the refuge wrote on its website. "We are near a lake, and our property is heavily treed, so we do have a large number of raccoons in the immediate area."
A disease called feline distemper virus also exists and there is a vaccination for it, which the big cat refuge says it administers to its felines. But there is no approved vaccine for canine distemper in big cats, the refuge stated.
"They cannot receive the dog version of the vaccine, as it is a live virus vaccine and has been known to cause extremely serious problems in big cats. We have administered the ferret version of the vaccine, which isn't thought to cause serious problems, but it also isn't known whether or not it actually provides them any protection. 24 of our cats received this vaccine, including the 4 that we lost," the refuge wrote online.
The outbreak at the big cat refuge is being studied by scientists at Tufts University and Boston University, the AP reported.

Votes2 DateJun 25, 2015

[image for Planet Spotlight Red Rain in Kerala.jpg]
Natural wonders

Red rain

Gary Lindner
Wether or not you believe in extraterestrial life is not important what is important is that we understand that we are not only part of this Planet Earth but also part of a Galaxy that also can have and affect on our natural world. The Kerala red rain is a real example of an unexplained occurrence that did happen and can not be explained by any natural earthly presence. Things outside our atmosphere can and do impact this Planet and have been impacting Planet Earth for millions of years.
Gary Lindner
Director Planet Sanctuary
The Kerala red rain phenomenon was a blood rain (red rain) event that occurred from 25 July to 23 September 2001, when heavy downpours of red-coloured rain fell sporadically on the southern Indian state of Kerala, staining clothes pink.[1] Yellow, green, and black rain was also reported.[2][3][4] Coloured rain was also reported in Kerala in 1896 and several times since,[5] most recently in June 2012.[6][7]
Following a light microscopy examination, it was initially thought that the rains were coloured by fallout from a hypothetical meteor burst,[5] but a study commissioned by the Government of India concluded that the rains had been coloured by airborne spores from locally prolific terrestrial algae.[5]
It was not until early 2006 that the coloured rains of Kerala gained widespread attention when the popular media reported that Godfrey Louis and Santhosh Kumar of the Mahatma Gandhi University in Kottayam proposed a controversial argument that the coloured particles were extraterrestrial cells.[3][8][9] Red rains were also reported from 15 November 2012 to 27 December 2012 occasionally in eastern and north-central provinces of Sri Lanka,[10] where scientists from the Sri Lanka Medical Research Institute (MRI) are investigating to ascertain their cause.[11][12][13]
The coloured rain of Kerala began falling on 25 July 2001, in the districts of Kottayam and Idukki in the southern part of the state. Yellow, green, and black rain was also reported.[2][3][4] Many more occurrences of the red rain were reported over the following ten days, and then with diminishing frequency until late September.[3] According to locals, the first coloured rain was preceded by a loud thunderclap and flash of light, and followed by groves of trees shedding shrivelled grey "burnt" leaves. Shriveled leaves and the disappearance and sudden formation of wells were also reported around the same time in the area.[14][15][16] It typically fell over small areas, no more than a few square kilometres in size, and was sometimes so localised that normal rain could be falling just a few meters away from the red rain. Red rainfalls typically lasted less than 20 minutes.[3] Each millilitre of rain water contained about 9 million red particles, and each litre of rainwater contained approximately 100 milligrams of solids.[clarification needed] Extrapolating these figures to the total amount of red rain estimated to have fallen, it was estimated that 50,000 kilograms (110,000 lb) of red particles had fallen on Kerala.[3]
Chemical composition[edit]
Elemental analysis
Analysis by the CESS
(%) Analysis by Louis & Kumar (%)
Al 1.0 0.41
Ca 2.52

C 51.00 49.53
Cl 0.12
H 4.43
Fe 0.61 0.97
Mg 1.48

N 1.84
O 45.42
K 0.26

P 0.08

Si 7.50 2.85
Na 0.49 0.69
Photomicrograph of particles from red rain sample
Several groups of researchers analysed the chemical elements in the solid particles, and different techniques gave different results.[citation needed] The particles were composed mostly of carbon and oxygen[clarification needed] with lesser amounts of hydrogen, nitrogen, silicon, chlorine and metals.[citation needed]
Some water samples were taken to the Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS) in India, where they separated the suspended particles by filtration. The pH (acidity) of the water was found to be around 7 (neutral). The electrical conductivity of the rainwater showed the absence of any dissolved salts. Sediment (red particles plus debris) was collected and analysed by the CESS using a combination of ion-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry and wet chemical methods. The major elements found are listed below.[5] The CESS analysis also showed significant amounts of heavy metals, including nickel (43 ppm), manganese (59 ppm), titanium (321 ppm), chromium (67ppm) and copper (55 ppm).
Louis and Kumar used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the red solid and showed that the particles were composed of mostly carbon and oxygen, with trace amounts of silicon and iron.[3] A CHN analyser showed content of 43.03% carbon, 4.43% hydrogen, and 1.84% nitrogen.[3]
Weather or not you believe in extraterestrial life is not important what is important is that we understand that we are not only part of this Planet Earth but also part of a Galaxy that also can have and affect on our natural world. The Kerala red rain is an example of the possibility of the affect of that things outside our atmosphere do impact this Planet and have been impacting Planet Earth for millions of years.
J. Thomas Brenna in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University conducted carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses using a scanning electron microscope with X-ray micro-analysis, an elemental analyser, and an isotope ratio (IR) mass spectrometer. The red particles collapsed when dried, which suggested that they were filled with fluid. The amino acids in the particles were analysed and seven were identified (in order of concentration): phenylalanine, glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, aspartic acid, threonine, and arginine. He concluded[citation needed] that the results were consistent with a marine origin or a terrestrial plant that uses a C4 photosynthetic pathway.[17]
"The red cells found in the red rain in Kerala, India are now considered as a possible case of extraterrestrial life form. These cells can undergo rapid replication even at an extreme high temperature of 300 °C. They can also be cultured in diverse unconventional chemical substrates. The molecular composition of these cells is yet to be identified".
Researcher Chandra Wickramasinghe used Louis and Kumar's "extraterrestrial origin" claim to further support his panspermia hypothesis called cosmic ancestry.[42] This hypothesis postulates that life is neither the product of supernatural creation, nor is it spontaneously generated through abiogenesis, but that it has always existed in the universe. Cosmic ancestry speculates that higher life forms, including intelligent life, descend ultimately from pre-existing life which was at least as advanced as the descendants.[43][44][45][46][47]

Votes1 DateJun 1, 2015

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Habitats

Do-Gooders

Gary Lindner
This is how we protect the future of "OUR" Planet with the spirit of children. There is a saying give a man a fish and feed him for a day Teach a man to fish and feed him for life. So lets expand on that thought, clean up after your child every day he learns nothing teach him to clean up after himself and his environment and you have a do-gooder for life. Here is a perfect example of this behavior.
Gary Lindner
Director Planet Sanctuary
Marianne Krasny Become a fan
Cornell professor of civic ecology, resilience, and environmental education.
Email
Nature's Do-Gooders: What Difference Do They Make?
Last week I assembled a group of nature "do-gooders" at the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center in Annapolis MD. And I asked them what difference their well-intended actions really make.
First off, you might want to know who these do-gooders are. One is Veronica Kyle of Faith in Place in Chicago, who links stories of African-American migration to migration of the monarch butterfly, and inspires folks to plant milkweed in public spaces to "welcome home" the butterflies. Another is Robert Hughes, who for 20 years has spurred people in his native eastern Pennsylvania coalfields to plant trees along stream corridors, clean up illegally dumped trash, create community gardens at historic mining sites, restore trout fisheries, and otherwise reclaim communities impacted by coal mining and poverty.
Anandi Premlall came down to our workshop from New York City, where she initiated efforts to convert a 3.5 mile disused rail line to what someday will be The QueensWay linear park and cultural greenway. And representing the Maryland Coastal Bays Program, Carrie Samis shared her work with Coastal Stewards -- youth, primarily from communities of color -- who plant native grasses to recreate "soft shorelines" that absorb run-off and protect beaches. Because these and others assembled in Annapolis care for nature and community, my Cornell University colleague Keith Tidball and I call them "civic ecology stewards." And we call their actions "civic ecology practices."
2015-03-08-1425850592-108695-ConceptforaNatureCenteratTheQueensWayHPLR.jpg
Rendering of The QueensWay. Image courtesy of WXY and Dland.
To help understand what these actions mean beyond one community garden, one section along a stream or coastline, or one urban trail, I also invited university researchers to the workshop. I asked the stewards and the researchers to answer the question: Given the scale of the environmental and social problems we face, what difference do small restoration projects make? Here are some of the answers they came up with.
Brandeis University sociologist Carmen Sirianni sees civic ecology practices as part of a larger civic renewal movement. He noted that the coalitions of stewardship organizations working together on watershed and other restoration projects build participants' civic capacity to engage in additional civic actions. And through forming partnerships with larger non-profits and government agencies, these efforts can influence local and sometimes regional or even national environmental policy.
U.S. Forest Service social scientist Erika Svendsen researches how city-wide coalitions of stewardship organizations exchange ideas and resources through dynamic social networks. She has discovered that some organizations engaged in civic ecology practice -- like Greening of Detroit -- are particularly important nodes in these networks. They serve as "bridging organizations" bringing together groups working at different scales and in different places. They also serve as "brokers," helping civil society, business, and government to hammer out agreements on use of open space in cities and elsewhere.
Looking forward, Drew University professor of sociology of religion and environmental studies, Laurel Kearns, asked us not to forget the power of religious organizations engaged in civic ecology practices. Religions have shared value systems that incorporate justice, caring for one's neighbor, and caring for God's creation. Those who attend church, synagogues, temples and mosques may also share in practices around gardening and food, health and healing, and simply volunteering. And they often have the trust and social ties -- the social capital -- that is so needed for people to commit to collective action. Because of their critical role in "delivering" civic ecology practices, professor Kearns refers to religious organizations as the environmental stewardship movement's "midwives."
And after listening to the stories of the civic ecology stewards, Emory University Professor of Environmental Sciences Lance Gunderson had this to say about the larger implications of their work. "Ideas drive policy. Politicians follow ideas." (And to prove Professor Gunderson's point, Senator Barbara Mikulski recently tweeted about the Maryland Coastal Stewards: "Be sure to remind them that the @CoastalStewards have a champion on The Hill!").
Are small acts of caring for nature and community the answer to the larger social and environmental problems we face? No. But we don't know the answer. Civic ecology practices are one among many needed experiments. Such experiments -- or social innovations that arise from the ground up -- gain in importance when we don't know how to do things right. Because in integrating caring for community and nature, these and other "do-gooder" civic ecology stewards are, as Spike Lee said, "Doing the right thing."

Votes2 DateMay 11, 2015

[image for Planet Spotlight earth hands.jpg]
Natural wonders

Earth from space

Gary Lindner
Hello my name is Gary Lindner, Director of Planet Sanctuary and Senior Vice President of One World Blue. I would like to introduce the completion of Planet Sanctuary and take a moment to explain our platform. The purpose of the platform is to give all readers and "do-gooders" the ability to spread information concerning "OUR" natural world on Planet Earth. This information should contain positive research, videos and data on people, places and animals that have been or will be affected by the good deeds of people around "OUR" Planet Earth. This is going to be a fantastic way to focus on these good deeds and ultimately motivate more. Here is a video of the great planet Earth from space. I am inviting and encouraging readers to participate in the distribution of information that they are passionate about. Every week I will share information that has caught my attention. As I continue to search for information about "OUR" Planet Earth, I hope to see your videos and articles showing the vast detail on "OUR" planet with a positve human touch.
Sincerely,
Gary Lindner
PS PLEASE BECOME A REGISTERED USER.

Votes7 DateMay 7, 2015


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Lifts (Votes)*

Name Vote Date
Stop the Madness Nov 17, 2015 @ 10:28:21 am
Massive US Senate Document On National And Global Weather Modification Oct 16, 2015 @ 10:07:16 am
Cold Blob Oct 16, 2015 @ 09:51:51 am
global warming Oct 10, 2015 @ 02:22:39 am
Big Foot? Sep 1, 2015 @ 12:13:41 pm
15000 species are found on our planet every year Sep 1, 2015 @ 11:58:02 am
15000 species are found on our planet every year Sep 1, 2015 @ 11:32:02 am
The wild chickens of Kauai Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:43:36 pm
A cat that has visited my backyard for years Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:43:27 pm
Cultural Transformation Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:42:57 pm
Radio Taboo Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:42:30 pm
20 kids transform a rough Pittsburgh neighborhood with solar art & charging station Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:42:15 pm
BringHome100 Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:41:51 pm
Humpback Whale Shows AMAZING Appreciation After Being Freed From Nets Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:41:42 pm
Japanese Matcha Tea Ceremony Chanoyu Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:41:33 pm
Ceresav.org Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:41:28 pm
Attila Domos - Let's Do Something Amazing!! Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:41:16 pm
Japan: Tradition And Modernity Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:41:09 pm
International Fishing Festival Nigeria Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:41:04 pm
Dr. Georges Bwelle Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:40:52 pm
No More Excuses Richie Parker (Guy With No Arms) Of Hendrick Motorsports Inspirational Video Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:40:46 pm
Alicia Munro Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:40:39 pm
Patch Adams Aug 19, 2015 @ 04:40:34 pm
Save the elephant Aug 7, 2015 @ 10:59:45 pm
fly fishing Jul 15, 2015 @ 04:09:17 pm
fly fishing Jul 15, 2015 @ 03:34:43 pm
Neon sharks Jun 25, 2015 @ 01:31:17 pm
Florida keys Jun 25, 2015 @ 01:09:38 pm
True Love Jun 25, 2015 @ 01:05:26 pm
Iguassu Falls Jun 25, 2015 @ 01:05:14 pm
BIG cats Jun 25, 2015 @ 12:52:10 pm
Red rain Jun 1, 2015 @ 12:32:19 pm
Photography of the Freedom from Fracking Benefit Concert May 25, 2015 @ 08:17:11 pm
Do-Gooders May 11, 2015 @ 02:29:12 am
Earth from space May 11, 2015 @ 02:05:13 am
Yeshiva Shalom Rav May 6, 2015 @ 10:31:27 am
Nepal Earthquake Relief May 6, 2015 @ 10:31:19 am
Baby Orang Rickina May 6, 2015 @ 10:28:33 am
Patriot the Bald Eagle Takes a Bath May 6, 2015 @ 10:28:26 am
Toddler plays with Gorilla May 6, 2015 @ 10:28:18 am
Baby Monkey Nala waking up... May 6, 2015 @ 10:28:11 am
The Economic Benefits of Old-Growth Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Mar 9, 2015 @ 10:25:15 am
standing trees Mar 8, 2015 @ 10:53:06 pm
Humla Nursing Education Project Feb 17, 2015 @ 10:44:39 pm
Riana Van Nieuwenhuizen Feb 16, 2015 @ 02:59:24 pm

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