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[image for Culture Spotlight playa-cumilinche.jpg]
South America

Culture in Esmeraldas

Bernard Asper
Marronage—the flight of enslaved men and women was a common occurrence in the Americas and Caribbean from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries. Originally believed to be of Spanish origin (cimarrón; French marron), the term "maroon" is now thought to derive from a Hispaniola Taino root meaning "fugitive," which combined with the Spanish cimá (mountaintop). The term was originally applied to livestock in the Hispaniola hills and to fugitive Amerindian slaves.
Known variously as quilombos (Jaga ki-lombo, "war camp"), mocambos (Mbundu mu-kambo, "hideout"), and palenques (palisades or stockades), Maroon settlements developed from the southern United States to South America.
Until a few decades ago, the area around Esmeraldas Ecuador was accessible only by sea. The only inhabitants for centuries were native people of the Tumaco and La Tolita cultures that spread over the modern borders of Colombia and northern Ecuador.
Maroons developed a variety of military, social, and political relations with Amerindians as allies, domestic slaves, spouses, and advisers of chiefs. When slaves were being brought to the New World to work the growing sugar plantations, the mines, and other jobs, some of them escaped shipwrecks and swam ashore on the Esmeraldas coast. They overcame, first by violence, then by reproducing, the local cultures, and created in northern Ecuador the Republic of Esmeraldas which became a haven for escaping slaves from other Ecuadorian provinces.
Esmeraldas took its name from Spanish colonizers, who hoped to find a rich source of emeralds, but also for the lush tropical vegetation of the area. Runaway slaves from Brazil and surrounding settlements and plantations joined with the communities and together these groups held off the Spanish colonial powers for many years. The intense mixing and merging of cultures from different sides of the globe is evident in the music of the region today.
The base of the music is made up of rhythmic drumming and the warm and distinctive marimba, a wooden xylophone, accompanied by singers and a traditional dance. In Esmeraldas and the Pacific Coast of Colombia a branch of the genre, marimba salsera, has more contemporary influences of the salsa culture popular in most parts of Ecuador and throughout Latin America. The esmeraldeños celebrate this cultural and musical legacy in various festivals and performances such as the Festival Internacional de Danza y Musica Afro, and music accompanies and is part of different religious practices.
Forms of entertainment mainly got influenced by West Africa. The main thing that they used for their daily entertainment were dancing and music. Dancing and music were very traditional, but music has changed to story-telling. The most popular dance in Esmeralda is called the Currulao otherwise known as the Marimba dance, this dance was played to a specific song. A marimba is an instrument that was made out of wood and was played using metal mallets.
The inhabitants wore informal and formal clothing. Informal clothing included hats. ponchos, and shirts that had very specific details. In some villages in Esmeralda, females would wear very vibrant colored skirts. They wear sombreros even when they aren't farming. Normally sombreros were used during agriculture. Their traditional clothing you can see being worn for their shows consisting of dancing and music. When women dance, they normally wear those big full skirts with embroidery and vibrant colors.
Isolated for so many years, the black and indigenous cultures interwove and created a culture that remains vibrant today. With the coming of roads, the development of the port, and the establishment of Esmeraldas as the site of Ecuador's largest oil refinery for the Trans-Ecuador pipeline bringing oil from the Amazon, the city of Esmeraldas has become a large commercial and tourism center. At the same time, ecologically concerned citizens have created wildlife reserves and mangrove conservation groups.
Adapted from:
www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/maroons-cimarrones
https://www.tripsavvy.com/esmeraldas-ecuador-guide-1635482
http://esmeraldaequador-sustainability-city.weebly.com/culture.html
https://soundsandcolours.com/articles/ecuador/esmeraldas-and-its-afro-ecuadorian-cultural-legacy-28309/

Votes1 DateNov 15, 2020

[image for Culture Spotlight Waorani1.jpg]
South America

Nomads of the Rainforest

One World Blue, LLC
WARANI: The Saga of Ecuador's Secret People: A Historical Perspective
From:
http://www.lastrefuge.co.uk/data/articles/waorani/waorani_articles_main.html
retrieved on 5/30/15
"How can the Indians assume goodwill when we ferret them out so relentlessly? ... We approach them from the sky, the sphere which they do not control ... We are offering them unknown territory for known, a foreign land instead of home, dependency for self sufficiency, subjection to outside powers instead of resistance, and hunger where once there was plenty. (Quote from a Missionary, reflecting on his life.
For most of us, as individuals, life is defined by family and village; but on a grander scale, human migration, trade and the interpenetration of cultures are as old as the human experience. Globalization is not a phenomenon of the last decade, it is the human condition; as population increases, we need more room; the powerful relentlessly subdue the weak. Mankind has followed this universal pattern throughout history - whether in Europe, Asia, Africa, or the Americas. It is happening even now, in Amazonia; outsiders arrive, engulf, overwhelm, and consume, leaving a trail of irreversible destruction behind. It is a natural evolutionary process; it seems inevitable, and unstoppable.
The history of the Waorani of eastern Ecuador, and for that matter all of the Amazonian tribes, is sketchy, but first contacts with outsiders were often both tragic and violent. Records show that explorers arrived in the Amazon in the sixteenth Century, when Gonzalo Pizarro, brother of Francisco Pizarro who conquered the Incas, allowed some of his lieutenants to follow the river Amazon to its mouth. Of the hundreds of soldiers who set out on this perilous journey, only a few survived the debilitating diseases and hostile tribes they encountered on the way. For Indians who had never seen white people before it must have been a terrifying encounter, and they defended themselves against the unwelcome intrusion. For the soldiers, fierce looking Indians who could move silently through the undergrowth and strike without warning, usually at night, became formidable adversaries.
In spite of the hostility of the environment and the Indians, more and more outsiders ventured into the Amazon; among the first were rubber gatherers, gold prospectors, and enterprising merchants. These men, eking out a hard life far from familiar home surroundings, often became unscrupulous, plundering villages, raping Indian women, enslaving young men, and murdering others. Many Indians died from diseases brought in by the strangers against which they had no resistance. It is no wonder that, for the Indians, outsiders were bad news.
The traditional lands of the Waorani lie in Ecuadorian Amazonia, where the foothills of the Andean Cordilleras flatten out to meet eight thousand square miles of tropical rain forest lying between the Napo and Curaray rivers. In the isolation of this remote territory, the Waorani have lived as semi-nomadic hunter gardeners for many centuries. But in the course of just one generation, their lives and their homeland have changed irrevocably.
Exploration for oil began on the fringes of Waorani territory in the early 1940's, but the companies soon encountered great difficulties because of Waorani violence and hostility. In January 1942, at Arajuno, a Shell Oil Company foreman and two Ecuadorian workers were speared to death by a band of Waorani Indians, led by a man called Moipa. It made news headlines for a shocked outside world, but was only the first of many such raids by these uncontacted Indians. By 1949, a total of twelve Shell employees had been killed by Waorani, forcing Shell to abandon their operations. The Waorani had earned a reputation as a tribe of hostile 'savages', or in the Quichua language, 'Aucas'. It would be almost another decade before any peaceful contact would be made; only then would the outside world begin to understand the extraordinary and unique nature of the Waorani. It would be revealed that they were a desperate people living in fear, not just the threat from outsiders, but with a culture so embedded in violence that they were afraid of themselves.
Soon after the Shell company killings, at the end of the forties, yet more tales of violence emerged. Two Waorani girls, Dayuma and Ome, chose to come out of the forest of their own accord, in order to escape a spate of vengeful spearing attacks and killings on their families by Moipa, the same man who had killed the oil workers. The girls fled the violence, throwing themselves at the mercy of the first outsider they came across. That outsider, Don Carlos, was the owner of a tea plantation, Hacienda Ila, and he took the girls to live as his slaves. Meanwhile, in the forest, the deadly vendettas continued, with killings and revenge killings. Moipa himself was eventually speared to death by other Waorani. Once accepted at Ila, Dayuma and Ome started doing manual work. Some time later, Rachel Saint, an American missionary from Wycliffe Bible translators, befriended them at the hacienda and started to learn their language. Little did Rachel know at the time that the consequences of her action would trigger a series of events that would change the lives of the Waorani forever.
To Read More See :
http://www.lastrefuge.co.uk/data/articles/waorani/waorani_articles_main.html
PBS NOVA DOCUMENTARY 1984
Published on Aug 7, 2013
NOVA visits the Waorani Indians of Eastern Ecuador less than 30 years after their first contact with Western civilization. Left largely undisturbed because of their traditional hostility toward outsiders, a few families remain deep in the rainforest hunting game with blowguns and spears. They also cultivate gardens, make weapons and tools and maintain traditions that date back to the Stone Age.

Votes1 DateMay 30, 2015

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